When Entanglement meets Classical Communications: Quantum Teleportation for the Quantum Internet (Invited Paper). (arXiv:1907.06197v1 [quant-ph])

Quantum Teleportation is the key communication functionality of the Quantum
Internet, allowing the ``transmission'' of qubits without either the physical
transfer of the particle storing the qubit or the violation of the quantum
mechanical principles. Quantum teleportation is facilitated by the action of
quantum entanglement, a somewhat counter-intuitive physical phenomenon with no
direct counterpart in the classical word. As a consequence, the very concept of
the classical communication system model has to be redesigned to account for
the peculiarities of quantum teleportation. This re-design is a crucial
prerequisite for constructing any effective quantum communication protocol. The
aim of this manuscript is to shed light on this key concept, with the objective
of allowing the reader: i) to appreciate the fundamental differences between
the transmission of classical information versus the teleportation of quantum
information; ii) to understand the communications functionalities underlying
quantum teleportation, and to grasp the challenges in the design and practical
employment of these functionalities; iii) to acknowledge that quantum
information is subject to the deleterious effects of a noise process termed as
quantum decoherence. This impairment has no direct counterpart in the classical
world; iv) to recognize how to contribute to the design and employment of the
Quantum Internet.

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